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  • Malcolm X

    Malcolm X was born Malcolm Little on May 19, 1925 in Omaha, Nebraska. His mother, Louise Norton Little, was a homemaker occupied with the family’s eight children. His father, Earl Little, was an outspoken Baptist minister and avid supporter of Black Nationalist leader Marcus Garvey. Earl’s civil rights activism prompted death threats from the white supremacist organization Black Legion, forcing the family to relocate twice before Malcolm’s fourth birthday.
    Regardless of the Little’s efforts to elude the Legion, in 1929, their Lansing, Michigan home was burned to the ground. Two years later, Earl’s body was found lying across the town’s trolley tracks. Police ruled both incidents as accidents, but the Littles were certain that members of the Black Legion were responsible. Louise suffered emotional breakdown several years after the death of her husband and was committed to a mental institution, while her children were split up among various foster homes and orphanages.
    Eventually, Malcolm and his long-time friend, Malcolm “Shorty” Jarvis, moved back to Boston. In 1946, they were arrested and convicted on burglary charges, and Malcolm was sentenced to 10 years in prison, although he was granted parole after serving seven years.
    Recalling his days in school, he used the time to further his education. It was during this period of self-enlightenment that Malcolm’s brother Reginald would visit and discuss his recent conversion to the Muslim religion. Reginald belonged to the religious organization the Nation of Islam (NOI).
    Intrigued, Malcolm began to study the teachings of NOI leader Elijah Muhammad. Muhammad taught that white society actively worked to keep African-Americans from empowering themselves and achieving political, economic, and social success. Among other goals, the NOI fought for a state of their own, separate from one inhabited by white people. By the time he was paroled in 1952, Malcolm was a devoted follower with the new surname “X” (He considered “Little” a slave name and chose the “X” to signify his lost tribal name.).
    Intelligent and articulate, Malcolm was appointed as a minister and national spokesman for the Nation of Islam. Elijah Muhammad also charged him with establishing new mosques in cities such as Detroit, Michigan, and Harlem. Malcolm utilized newspaper columns, as well as radio and television, to communicate the NOI’s message across the United States. His charisma, drive, and conviction attracted an astounding number of new members. Malcolm was largely credited with increasing membership in the NOI from 500 in 1952 to 30,000 in 1963.
    The crowds and controversy surrounding Malcolm made him a media magnet. He was featured in a weeklong television special with Mike Wallace in 1959, called The Hate That Hate Produced. The program explored the fundamentals of the NOI, and tracked Malcolm’s emergence as one of its most important leaders. After the special, Malcolm was faced with the uncomfortable reality that his fame had eclipsed that of his mentor Elijah Muhammad. In addition to the media, Malcolm’s vivid personality had captured the government’s attention. As membership in the NOI continued to grow, FBI agents infiltrated the organization (one even acted as Malcolm’s bodyguard) and secretly placed bugs, wiretaps, cameras, and other surveillance equipment to monitor the group’s activities.
    Malcolm’s faith was dealt a crushing blow at the height of the civil rights movement in 1963. He learned that his mentor and leader, Elijah Muhammad, was secretly having relations with as many as six women within the Nation of Islam organization. As if that were not enough, Malcolm found out that some of these relationships had resulted in children.
    Since joining the NOI, Malcolm had strictly adhered to the teachings of Muhammad, which included remaining celibate until his marriage to Betty Shabazz in 1958. Malcolm refused Muhammad’s request to help cover up the affairs and subsequent children. He was deeply hurt by Muhammad’s actions, because he had previously considered him a living prophet. Malcolm also felt guilty about the masses he had led to join the NOI, which he now felt was a fraudulent organization built on too many lies to ignore.
    Shortly after his shocking discovery, Malcolm received criticism for a comment he made regarding the assassination of President John F. Kennedy. “[Kennedy] never foresaw that the chickens would come home to roost so soon,” said Malcolm. After the statement, Elijah Muhammad “silenced” Malcolm for 90 days. Malcolm, however, suspected he was silenced for another reason. In March 1964, Malcolm terminated his relationship with the NOI. Unable to look past Muhammad’s deception, Malcolm decided to found his own religious organization, the Muslim Mosque, Inc.
    That same year, Malcolm went on a pilgrimage to Mecca, which proved to be life altering for him. For the first time, Malcolm shared his thoughts and beliefs with different cultures and found the response to be overwhelmingly positive. When he returned, Malcolm said he had met “blonde-haired, blued-eyed men I could call my brothers.” He returned to the United States with a new outlook on integration and a new hope for the future. This time when Malcolm spoke, instead of just preaching to African-Americans, he had a message for all races.
    After Malcolm resigned his position in the Nation of Islam and renounced Elijah Muhammad, relations between the two had become increasingly volatile. FBI informants working undercover in the NOI warned officials that Malcolm had been marked for assassination–one undercover officer had even been ordered to help plant a bomb in Malcolm’s car.
    After repeated attempts on his life, Malcolm rarely traveled anywhere without bodyguards. On February 14, 1965 the home where Malcolm, Betty, and their four daughters lived in East Elmhurst, New York was firebombed. Luckily, the family escaped physical injury.
    One week later, however, Malcolm’s enemies were successful in their ruthless attempt. At a speaking engagement in the Manhattan’s Audubon Ballroom on February 21, 1965, three gunmen rushed Malcolm onstage. They shot him 15 times at close range. The 39-year-old was pronounced dead on arrival at New York’s Columbia Presbyterian Hospital.
    Fifteen hundred people attended Malcolm’s funeral in Harlem on February 27, 1965 at the Faith Temple Church of God in Christ (now Child’s Memorial Temple Church of God in Christ). After the ceremony, friends took the shovels away from the waiting gravediggers and buried Malcolm themselves.
    Later that year, Betty gave birth to their twin daughters.
    Malcolm’s assassins, Talmadge Hayer, Norman 3X Butler, and Thomas 15X Johnson, were convicted of first-degree murder in March 1966. The three men were all members of the Nation of Islam. Malcolm X’s legacy has moved through generations as the subject of numerous documentaries, books, and movies. A tremendous resurgence of interest occurred in 1992 when director Spike Lee released the acclaimed movie, Malcolm X. The film received Oscar nominations for Best Actor (Denzel Washington) and Best Costume Design.
    Malcolm X is buried at the Ferncliff Cemetery in Hartsdale, New York.

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  • Biografi Syaikh Muhammad Bin Shalih Al-Utsaimin

    Nasab (Silsilah Beliau)


    Beliau bernama Abdillah Muhammad Bin Shalih Bin Muhammad Bin Utsaimin Al-Wahib At-Tamimi. Dilahirkan di kota Unaizah tanggal 27 Ramadhan 1347 Hijriyah.

    Pertumbuhan Beliau

    Beliau belajar membaca Al-Qur’an kepada kakeknya dari ibunya yaitu Abdurrahman Bin Sulaiman Ali Damigh Rahimahullah, hingga beliau hafal. Sesudah itu beliau mulai mencari ilmu dan belajar khat (ilmu tulis menulis), ilmu hitung dan beberapa bidang ilmu sastra.

    Syaikh Abdurrahman As-Sa’di Rahimahullah menugaskan kepada 2 orang muridnya untuk mengajar murid-muridnya yang kecil. Dua murid tersebut adalah Syaikh Ali Ash-Shalihin dan Syaikh Muhammad Bin Abdil Aziz Al-Muthawwi’ Rahimahullah. Kepada yang terakhir ini beliau (syaikh Utsaimin) mempelajari kitab Mukhtasar Al Aqidah Al Wasithiyah dan Minhaju Salikin fil Fiqh karya Syaikh Abdurrahman As-Sa’di dan Al- Ajurrumiyah serta Alfiyyah.

    Disamping itu, beliau belajar ilmu faraidh (waris) dan fiqh kepada Syaikh Abdurrahman Bin Ali Bin ‘Audan. Sedangkan kepada syaikh (guru) utama beliau yang pertama yaitu Syaikh Abdurrahman Bin Nashir As-Sa’di, beliau sempat mengkaji masalah tauhid, tafsir, hadits, fiqh, ustsul fiqh, faraidh, musthalahul hadits, nahwu dan sharaf.

    Belia mempunyai kedudukan penting di sisinya Syaikhnya Rahimahullah. Ketika ayah beliau pindah ke Riyadh, di usia pertumbuhan beliau, beliau ingin ikut bersama ayahnya. Oleh karena itu Syaikh Abdurrahman As-Sa’di mengirim surat kepada beliau: “Hal ini tidak mungkin, kami menginginkan Muhammad tetap tinggal di sini agar dapat bisa mengambil faidah (ilmu).”

    Beliau (Syaikh Utsaimin) berkata, “Sesungguhnya aku merasa terkesan dengan beliau (Syaikh Abdurrahman Rahimahullah) dalam banyak cara beliau mengajar, menjelaskan ilmu, dan pendekatan kepada para pelajar dengan contoh-contoh serta makna-makna. Demikian pula aku terkesan dengan akhlak beliau yang agung dan utama sesuai dengan kadar ilmu dan ibadahnya. Beliau senang bercanda dengan anak-anak kecil dan bersikap ramah kepada orang-orang besar. Beliau adalah orang yang paling baik akhlaknya yang pernah aku lihat.”

    Beliau belajar kepada Syaikh Abdul Aziz Bin Baaz -sebagai syaikh utama kedua bagi beliau- kitab Shahih Bukhari dan sebagian risalah-risalah Syaikh Islam Ibnu Taimiyyah serta beberapa kitab-kitab fiqh.

    Beliau berkata, “Aku terkesan terhadap syaikh Abdul Aziz Bin Baz Hafidhahullah karena perhatian beliau terhadap hadits dansaya juga terkesan dengan akhlak beliau karena sikap terbuka beliau dengan manusia.”

    Pada tahun 1371 H, beliau duduk untuk mengajar di masjid Jami’. Ketika dibukanya ma’had-ma’had al ilmiyyah di Riyadh, beliau mendaftarkan diri di sana pada tahun 1372 H. Berkata Syaikh Utsaimin Hafidhahullah, “Saya masuk di lembaga pendidikan tersebut untuk tahun kedua seterlah berkonsultasi dengan Syaikh Ali Ash-Shalihin dan sesudah meminta ijin kepada Syaikh Abdurrahman As-Sa’di Rahimahullah. Ketika itu ma’had al ilmiyyah dibagi menjadi 2 bagian, umum dan khusus. Saya berada pada bidang yang khusus. Pada waktu itu bagi mereka yang ingin “meloncat” – demikian kata mereka- ia dapat mempelajari tingkat berikutnya pada masa libur dan kemudian diujikan pada awal tahun ajaran kedua. Maka jika ia lulus, ia dapat naik ke pelajaran tingkat lebih tinggi setelah itu. Dengan cara ini saya dapat meringkas waktu.”

    Sesudah 2 tahun, beliau lulus dan diangkat menjadi guru di ma’had Unaizah Al ‘Ilmi sambil meneruskan studi beliau secara intishab (Semacam Universitas Terbuka -red) pada fakultas syari’ah serta terus menuntut ilmu dengan bimbingan Syaikh Abdurrahman Bin Nashir As-Sa’di.

    Ketika Syaikh Abdurrahman Bin Nashir As-Sa’di wafat, beliau menggantikan sebagai imam masjid jami’ di Unaizah dan mengajar di perpustakaan nasional Unaizah disamping tetap mengajar di ma’had Al Ilmi. Kemudian beliau pindah mengajar di fakultas syari’ah dan ushuludin cabang universitas Al Imam Muhammad Bin Su’ud Al Islamiyah di Qasim. Beliau juga termasuk anggota Haiatul Kibarul Ulama di Kerajaan Arab Saudi. Syaikh Hafidhahullah mempunyai banyak kegiatan dakwah kepada Allah serta memberikan pengarahan kepada para Da’i di setiap tempat. Jasa beliau sangat besar dalam masalah ini.

    Perlu diketahui pula bahwa Syaikh Muhammad Bin Ibrahim Rahimahullah telah menawarkan bahkan meminta berulang kali kepada syaikh Utsaimin untuk menduduki jabatan Qadhi (hakim), bahkan telah mengeluarkan surat pengangkatan sebagai ketua pengadilan agama di Al Ihsa, namun beliau menolak secara halus. Setelah dilakukan pendekatan pribadi, Syaikh Muhammad Bin Ibrahim pun mengabulkannya untuk menarik dirinya (Syaikh Utsaimin -red) dari jabatan tersebut.

    Karya-karya Beliau

    Buku-buku yag telah ditulis oleh Syaikh Utsaimin diantaranya adalah sebagai berikut:

    1. Talkhis Al Hamawiyah, selesai pada tanggal 8 Dzulhijah 1380 H.
    2. Tafsir Ayat Al Ahkam (belum selesai).
    3. Syarh Umdatul Ahkam (belum selesai).
    4. Musthalah Hadits.
    5. Al Ushul min Ilmil Ushul.
    6. Risalah fil Wudhu wal Ghusl wash Shalah.
    7. Risalah fil Kufri Tarikis Shalah.
    8. Majalisu Ar Ramadhan.
    9. Al Udhiyah wa Az Zakah.
    10. Al Manhaj li Muridil Hajj wal Umrah.
    11. Tashil Al Faraidh.
    12. Syarh Lum’atul I’tiqad.
    13. Syarh Al Aqidah Al Wasithiyah.
    14. Aqidah Ahlus Sunnah Wal Jama’ah.
    15. Al Qowaidul Mustla fi Siftillah wa Asma’ihil Husna.
    16. Risalah fi Annath Thalaq Ats Tsalats Wahidah Walau Bikalimatin (belum dicetak).
    17. Takhrij Ahadits Ar Raudh Al Murbi’ (belum dicetak).
    18. Risalah Al Hijab.
    19. Risalah fi Ash Shalah wa Ath Thaharah li Ahlil A’dzar.
    20. Risalah fi Mawaqit Ash Shalah.
    21. Risalah fi Sujud As Sahwi
    22. Risalah fi Aqsamil Mudayanah.
    23. Risalah fi Wujubi Zakatil Huliyyi.
    24. Risalah fi Ahkamil Mayyit wa Ghuslihi (belum dicetak).
    25. Tafsir Ayatil Kursi.
    26. Nailul Arab min Qawaid Ibnu Rajab (belum dicetak).
    27. Ushul wa Qowa’id Nudhima ‘Alal Bahr Ar Rajaz (belum dicetak).
    28. Ad Diya’ Allami’ Minal Hithab Al Jawami’.
    29. Al Fatawaa An Nisaa’iyyah
    30. Zad Ad Da’iyah ilallah Azza wa Jalla.
    31. Fatawa Al Hajj.
    32. Al Majmu Al Kabir Min Al Fatawa.
    33. Huquq Da’at Ilaihal Fithrah wa Qarraratha Asy Syar’iyah.
    34. Al Khilaf Bainal Ulama, Asbabuhu wa Muaqifuna Minhu.
    35. Min Musykilat Asy Sayabab.
    36. Risalah fil Al Mash ‘alal Khuffain.
    37. Risalah fi Qashri Ash Shalah lil Mubtaisin.
    38. Ushul At Tafsir.
    39. Risalah Fi Ad Dima’ Ath Tabiiyah.
    40. As’illah Muhimmah.
    41. Al Ibtida’ fi Kamali Asy Syar’i wa Khtharil Ibtida’.
    42. Izalat As Sitar ‘Anil Jawab Al Mukhtar li Hidayatil Muhtar.

    Dan masih banyak karya-karya beliau hafidahullah ta’ala yang lain. Wallahu ‘alam.

    Sumber: SALAFY Edisi XIII/Sya’ban-Ramadhan/1417/1997
    Judul Asli: “Tokoh Ahlus Sunnah dari Unaizah”

    Wafat Beliau (keterangan tambahan)

    Sekarang beliau telah meninggal dunia. Beliau meninggal pada hari Rabu 15 Syawal 1421 Hijriyah bertepatan dengan 10 Januari 2001 dalam usia yang ke 74. Semoga Allah merahmati beliau dan memberikan balasan yang setimpal kepada beliau atas jasa-jasa beliau kepada Islam dan Muslimin.

    Sumber keterangan tambahan dinukil dari catatan kaki kitab Syarah Tsalasatil Ushul
    edisi Indonesia “Penjelasan 3 Landasan Pokok yang Wajib Diketahui Setiap Muslim”
    Penerbit Maktabah Al Ghuroba.


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